The following abstracts are from papers that are not Open Access.
Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration-related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs.
To determine the incidence and distribution of intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration-related diseases in a large population of dogs of various breeds, ages, and sexes and to determine mortality rates among dogs with these diseases.
Insurance data for dogs with veterinary health-care and life insurance coverage (n = 665,249 and 552,120, respectively).
Insurance claim records of 1 company in Sweden were searched to identify dogs with IVD degeneration-related diseases; incidence and mortality rates were determined for affected dogs < 12 years old and < 10 years old, respectively. Only the first paid IVD degeneration-related claim for a dog was included in incidence rate calculations.
The incidence rate of IVD degeneration-related diseases was 27.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.2 to 28.4) occurrences/10,000 dog-years at risk (DYAR), indicating that approximately 0.3% of dogs/y in this population were affected. Miniature Dachshund was the most highly represented breed, followed by Standard Dachshund and Doberman Pinscher (237.1 [95% CI, 212.9 to 261.4], 141.5 [95% CI, 135.5 to 147.4], and 88.6 [95% CI, 72.1 to 105.2] occurrences/10,000 DYAR, respectively). The incidence rate of IVD degeneration-related disease was greater in male than in female dogs and increased with age. Overall mortality rate attributed to IVD degeneration-related diseases was 9.4 (95% CI, 8.9 to 9.8) deaths/10,000 DYAR and was greater in males than in females.
Differences in incidence rates among various breeds suggested a genetic involvement. Knowledge of the distribution of IVD degeneration-related diseases among dogs of various breeds and ages may facilitate early diagnosis and preemptive treatments in patients at risk for developing these diseases.
Quantification of the association between intervertebral disk calcification and disk herniation in Dachshunds.
To quantify the association between intervertebral disk calcification and disk herniation in Dachshunds.
61 Dachshunds that had been radiographically screened for calcification of intervertebral disks at 2 years of age in other studies. Thirty-seven of the dogs had survived to the time of the present study and were > or = 8 years of age; 24 others had not survived.
Radiographic examination of 36 surviving dogs was performed, and information on occurrence of disk calcification at 2 years of age were obtained from records of all 61 Dachshunds. Information on occurrence of disk herniation between 2 and 8 years of age was obtained from owners via questionnaire. Associations between numbers of calcified disks and disk herniation were analyzed via maximum likelihood logistic regression.
Disk calcification at 2 years of age was a significant predictor of clinical disk herniation (odds ratio per calcified disk, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.81). Number of calcified disks in the full vertebral column was a better predictor than number of calcified disks between vertebrae T10 and L3. Numbers of calcified disks at > or = 8 years of age and at 2 years of age were significantly correlated.
Number of calcified disks at 2 years of age was a good predictor of clinical disk herniation in Dachshunds. Because of the high heritability of disk calcification, it is possible that an effective reduction in occurrence of severe disk herniation in Dachshunds could be obtained by selective breeding against high numbers of calcified disks at 2 years of age.
Mechanical factors affecting the occurrence of intervertebral disc calcification in the dachshund--a population study.
In a population sample comprising 48 standard wirehaired dachshunds, the occurrence of intervertebral disc calcification was determined by plain spinal radiography. Body dimensions of the dogs were measured and information obtained from owners about exercise patterns, including stair climbing, and the relation of these variables to the number of calcified discs was analysed by logistic regression. In the Danish population of wirehaired dachshunds, the prevalence of disc calcification was estimated at 77%. The spinal distribution of calcified discs is similar amongst different populations, while the prevalence varies significantly. Most types of exercise included in the variable 'duration of exercise' as well as moderate stair climbing seemed to reduce the rate of occurrence of disc calcification. The effects of moderate stair climbing (OR = 0.34) and duration of exercise (OR = 0.52) were statistically significant and the effects appear to be additive. Running next to a bicycle was the only type of exercise with a positive association with the number of calcified discs. This was, however, not significant. Effects of body conformation, including absolute and relative body measurements, were not found.
Inheritance of disc calcification in the dachshund
Jensen et al 2000
The occurrence of intervertebral disc calcification was investigated by conventional spinal radiography in eight families of wirehaired dachshunds, with each family comprising one sire, two dams and one litter from each dam. Each offspring was examined radiographically once at 24-35 months of age. The occurrence of disc calcification was rated according to four different scales. A strong correlation was found in the occurrence of disc calcification between offspring and mean parent (P < 0.001) and between offspring and dams (P < 0.005) on an either/or scale. Statistically significant estimates of heritability of 0.60 and 0.87 were found based on the offspring-sire relationship using the total score and three-class scale, respectively. Higher correlation estimates were found based on the dam-offspring relationship than based on the sire-offspring relationship, suggesting an effect of maternal environmental factors.
Calcification of intervertebral discs in the dachshund: a radiographic study of 115 dogs at 1 and 5 years of age.
The vertebral columns of 115 dachshunds were x-rayed at 1 and 5 years of age. This sample represented 5.7% of all dachshunds registered with the Norwegian Kennel Club in the period 1986-1988. All dogs were clinically normal at the commencement of the study. At 1 year of age calcified intervertebral discs were identified in 34 (29.6%) of the dogs and the number of calcified discs in each individual varied from 1 to 7 with a mean of 2.7. At 5 years of age calcified discs were identified in 66 (57.4%) of the dogs and the number of calcified discs in each individual varied from 1 to 11 with a mean of 3.2. Of all dogs in which calcified discs were identified at 1 year of age, 33 (97.1%) were found to have calcified discs also at 5 years of age. Of 92 calcified discs identified in the dogs at 1 year of age, 29 (31.5%) were not calcified 4 years later. Of 211 calcified discs identified in the dogs at 5 years of age, 148 (70.1%) were not calcified 4 years before. From 1 to 5 years of age, signs of spinal disease were registered in 12 (35.3%) of the dogs in which calcified discs were identified at 1 year of age, and in 7 (8.6%) of the dogs in which calcified discs were not identified at 1 year of age. Of all dogs in which one or more calcified discs had disappeared during the study-period, signs of spinal disease were registered in 9 (75.0%).